Treatments






PILONIDAL DISEASE

Following the onset of puberty, sex hormones affect the pilosebaceous glands, and subsequently, hair follicles can become distended with keratin. A folliculitis can result producing edema and follicle occlusion. If the infected follicle extends and ruptures into the subcutaneous tissue, a pilonidal abscess forms.
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ANAL FISSURES

An anal fissure is a tear in the squamous epithelial mucosa of the anal canal. They occur between the anocutaneous junction and the dentate line. The generally accepted etiology of anal fissures is the mechanical tearing from the passage of a hard stool, however the pathophysiology is likely to be multifactorial and may involve anodermal ischemia, infection, chronic constipation, and/or hypertonicity of the smooth muscle of the internal anal sphincter and its elevated resting pressure.
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FISTULA IN ANO

The cryptoglandular hypothesis states that an infection begins in the anal gland and progresses into the muscular wall of the anal sphincters to cause an anorectal abscess. Following surgical or spontaneous drainage in the perianal skin, occasionally a granulation tissue-lined tract is left behind, causing recurrent symptoms.
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HEMORRHOIDS

The major precipitator of hemorrhoids is increased rectal pressure (most often due to straining or constipation). Other causes of increased pelvic pressure such as pregnancy, portal hypertension, and excessive diarrhea can exacerbate their development as well.
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